Determination Determination of Work Index of Muro Iron Ore Using Marble and Granite as Reference Ores


  • OB Nenuwa Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
  • OO Alabi Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
  • JO Borode Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.


The work index of Muro iron ore was determined using the modified Bond’s method also known as Berry and Bruce method. This study used iron ore obtained from Muro town, a community in Toto LGA, Nasarawa state as the test ore. Marble and Granite which was separately used as the reference ores were obtained from Muro environs. 100 g each of the test ore and the reference ores were subjected to the same grinding conditions in a ball mill. Size analysis of the feed to the ball mill and the product of the ball mill for both test ore and reference ores were carried out and the results tabulated accordingly. The 80% passing particle size of the ball mill feed and discharge for the samples were calculated using the Gaudian Schumann expression. The Bond’s equation was then used to calculate the work index of the Muro iron ore which was found to be 24.84 kWh/ t when marble was used as reference ore and 27.41 kWh/ t when granite was used as reference ore. The average work index of Muro iron ore was calculated as 26.13 kWh/ t, while the energy requirement for grinding the ore was found to be 3.62 kWh/ t. The value of the work index of Muro iron ore is within the limit of work index of iron ore quoted in literatures.

How to cite this article: Nenuwa OB, Alabi OO, Borode JO. Determination of Work Index of Muro Iron Ore Using Marble and Granite as Reference Ores. J Adv Res Mfg Mater Sci Met Engr 2021; 8(3&4): 1-7.



ABU. Institute for Energy and Research. Ahmadu Bello Univerisity, Zaria. 2015.

Alabi OO, Yaro, SA, Dungka GT et al. Determination of work index of gyel-bukuru columbite ore in Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering 2015; 3: 194-203.

Also AK, Yakubu NA. Local Raw Materials for Steel production: The Case of Ajaokuta. College of Engineering Conference Series. Kaduna Polytechnic. 1995; 2(1).

Berry TF, Bruce RW. A simple method of determining the grindability of Ores. Canadian Mining Journal 1966; 87: 63-5.

Bond FC. The third theory of comminution. Trans. AIMF 1952; 193: 484.

Doerling Intl. Grinding Media Size Formula. DOERING International GmbH. Germany. Accessed 14 July, 2020.

Lowrison GC. Crushing and Grinding - The size reduction of solid material. London, Butterworths. 1974; 248.

Ministry of Mines and Steel Development (MMSD). Iron Ore Exploration Opportunities in Nigeria. 2010; 3-7.

Nigeran Geological Survey. Iron Ore Exploration Opportunity in Nigeria. Ministry of Mines and Steel. 2010.

Obaje NG. Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Springer. New York. 2009; 117-122.

Obaje NG, Lar UA, Nzegbuna AI et al. Geology and Mineral Resources of Nasarawa State: An Investors’ Guide. Nasara Scientifique (A publication of the Nasarawa State University). 2006; 2: 1-34.

Ojo O, Olaleye BM. Determination of grindability and work index of Itakpe Iron Ore. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2000; 6(3): 503-8.

Olatunji KJ, Durojaiye AG. Determination of Bond index of Birnin- Gwari Iron Ore in Nigeria. Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering 2010; 9(7): 635-42.

Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC, 2010): Steel Raw Materials in Nigeria. 2010.

Umar SB, Ali M, Mohammed SC. A Review of Nigerian metallic minerals for technological development. Natural Resources. 2011; 2: 87-91.

Weiss NL. SME Mineral Processing Handbook. Sampling and Testing - Characterization of Test Samples. Society of Mining Engineers. New-York. 1985; 2: 30-71.

Wills BA Wills Mineral Processing Technology. Elsevier Science and Technology Books. New-York. 2006.

Wills BA, Atkinson K. Some observations on the fracture and liberation of mineral assemblies. Minerals Engng 1993; 6(7): 697.

Yaro SA. Grindability test for Ririwai Lead-Zinc complex ore. Journal of Nigeria Mining. 1996.